The human papillomavirus is an oncogenic disease. The main manifestations of HPV are the formation of warts, papillomas and condylomas on the skin and mucous membranes. Both women and men are affected by the virus.
Causes of the emergence and activation of HPV
Note! The main reason for the appearance of papillomavirus in the body is infection from an infected person.
Factors that provoke infection include:
- weakened immunity;
- bad habits;
- frequent and severe nervous shocks;
- viral infections;
- pathology of the gastrointestinal tract;
- frequent change of sexual partners, unprotected sexual intercourse.
Can the human papillomavirus be cured?
HPV at the active stage of development is treatable.
The main goal of treatment is to eliminate symptoms and strengthen the protective mechanism of the human body.
Depending on the type of virus, symptoms, and complications, different treatments may be used.
Can HPV be permanently cured?
A feature of HPV is that when it enters the body, it settles in it forever. During periods when the body has a strong defense mechanism and is not exposed to the above risk factors, the virus is in a calm state and is not activated.
With a decrease in the immune system, non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, deterioration in health, the papillomavirus can reactivate.
Methods of infection with papillomavirus
Infection with the HPV virus occurs through direct contact with an infected person, through the mucous membranes and skin. There are several routes of infection:
- The main way is sexual contact. The probability of transmission of papillomavirus from an infected partner during unprotected intercourse is 60-70%. The risk increases significantly with frequent changes of partners. In the presence of microtraumas on the mucous membranes, infection is possible even during a kiss or oral sex;
- HPV infection also occurs in the household way: when using the same towels, dishes and hygiene products with an infected person. There is a risk of contracting papillomavirus in public saunas, baths and pools;
- It is also possible vertical transmission of the virus - from mother to fetus during childbirth.
Why is the human papillomavirus dangerous?
All varieties of HPV can be conditionally divided into two categories: viruses with low and high oncogenic risk. Groups of the second category are capable of developing into an oncological disease.
Note! HPV poses the greatest risk for women: highly oncogenic strains of the virus are most predisposed to them.
In women, papillomavirus can cause a number of diseases associated with the reproductive system:
- pathology of the cervix: erosion, leukoplakia, adenocarcinoma, cancerous tumors;
- oncology of the external genitalia, anal area.
Also, the development of the disease is accompanied by the appearance of warts and papillomas on the genitals, limbs, armpits and neck. Neoplasms cause discomfort, interfere with hygiene and the usual way of life, so they should be disposed of.
In men, the risk of developing cancer with HPV is lower, but not excluded. In addition, acute-angled papillomas can form on the penis, which cause discomfort and interfere with normal sexual activity. Such neoplasms should be removed immediately.
Identification of the disease usually begins with a visual examination by a doctor. During the examination, mucous membranes, skin integuments are studied, especially carefully it is necessary to examine the areas in which warts and papillomas are most often formed: the genital area, armpits, neck.
The main methods for diagnosing HPV include the following:
- Women definitely need to undergo a colposcopy, examination of the cervix and vagina, and also pass tests for cytology (scraping from the mucous membranes). If oncology is suspected, a biopsy may be additionally prescribed;
- PCR analysis (polymerase chain reaction). Allows you to identify the DNA of the virus from any material provided for analysis;
- Digene test is a more accurate analysis. According to its results, papillomavirus can be detected, its type can be recognized by DNA and the degree of malignancy can be determined.
General treatment regimen for HPV
Currently, there are no unified international protocols for the treatment of human papillomavirus. Two-component treatment regimens showed themselves best: they combine the removal of virus lesions by surgical methods and the simultaneous passage of special antiviral therapy. The effectiveness of this approach to the treatment of HPV is up to 90%.
Features of treatment in children
When HPV is activated in a child, doctors first of all resort to conservative methods of therapy: the appointment of immunomodulators and vitamins, as well as local treatment of rashes with ointments, compresses.
Surgical intervention is usually resorted to only in those cases when, during the observation, growth of warts and papillomas is noted.
Features of treatment during pregnancy
Note! HPV during the period of bearing a child does not have a pronounced negative effect on its development and the course of pregnancy in general.
The main recommendations for the treatment of papillomavirus during pregnancy:
- If the virus is detected before pregnancy, you should be treated without delay. This will normalize immunity and avoid thrush and other infections;
- It is desirable to plan the onset of pregnancy at the end of the second cycle after the completion of treatment;
- The course of HPV treatment during pregnancy should begin no earlier than the 28th week of pregnancy - the period when all organs are formed in the child. This will help to avoid the negative effects of medicines on the child's body.
The main treatments for HPV are:
- taking specific antiviral drugs;
- a course of immunomodulators;
- removal of neoplasms (papillomas, warts) surgically;
- reducing the symptoms of the disease by means of traditional medicine.
Important! The selection of medicines depends on the type of virus and the characteristics of the body. Only a doctor can prescribe a course of therapy and dosage of medications, self-medication can aggravate the situation.
The appointment of immunomodulators should be carried out by a doctor in accordance with the patient's immunogram - this will achieve a faster and more stable result.
Surgical approach (growth removal)
The main goal of HPV surgery is to remove cells that have been modified by the virus from the body.
Removal can be carried out in several ways, depending on the characteristics of the disease and the indications of the doctor:
- Electrocoagulation. Depending on the HPV group, the effectiveness of treatment ranges from 80% to 95%;
- Removal of rashes by laser. High efficiency, but there is a high probability of relapse. In addition, the wounds after the procedure heal for a long time - up to 4 weeks;
- radio wave surgery. It is used to remove single formations;
- Cryotherapy. Efficiency - up to 65%, relapse occurs in 40-50% of cases;
- Chemo-destructive agents. Applicable only for rashes in the genital area. Relatively low efficiency - no more than 40%.
Note! Means of alternative medicine should not be regarded as a complete method of treating HPV. However, they are an affordable and harmless way to weaken the active manifestation of the virus.
The most effective for papillomavirus are such folk remedies: fresh potato juice, steeply brewed string, a mixture of garlic and vinegar, Kalanchoe leaves, tea tree oil.
They should be used in the form of compresses, dressings for external manifestations of HPV - papillomas, warts.
Prevention of HPV recurrence
The main goals of preventing the recurrence of warts and papillomas are to strengthen immunity and maintain hygiene at home and in public places. Recommended:
- adhere to the correct diet;
- undergo vitamin therapy;
- observe a normal mode of work, get enough sleep and fully relax;
- increase physical activity.
Important! An effective method of preventing HPV reactivation is vaccination - with its help, you can protect yourself from the most dangerous groups of the virus for a long period.